When did the digital age begin? There is no clear answer.
People have probably been counting and calculating with their fingers – a natural calculating tool – since time immemorial. The word digital comes from the Latin digitus, finger. With two hands, numbers up to 9999 can be represented (see Fig. 1).
Fig. 1: Hand counting system. Counting and calculating with the fingers was once common. These instructions are taken from the first part of the work Summa de arithmetica geometria of Luca Pacioli (1523). Credit: ETH Library, Zurich, Rare books collection.
The abacus is considered the first (artificial) digital calculating device. There are two main forms: Line boards (counting boards, calculating boards, counter boards) and bead frames (arithmetical frames, counting frames). This popular mathematical instrument was widely used and can still be found today at countless flea markets. Already the ancient Greeks and the Romans calculated with it. Among the most famous bead frames are the Chinese, the Japanese, and the Russian abaci (see Fig. 2). From the Middle Ages, counter boards were also used. It is not known who invented the abacus or when.
Fig. 2: Chinese abacus (suanpan). This abacus, acquired in Beijing in 1983, was still in use at that time at the checkout counters of department stores. It is suited to the four basic arithmetic operations, as well as for square roots and cube. Credit: Aldo Lardelli, Studiensammlung Kern, Aarau.
Important inventors of mechanical calculating machines (see Fig.3) were Wilhelm Schickard (Germany, 1623), Blaise Pascal (France, 1642), and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (Germany, 1673). These digital calculators mastered two to four basic arithmetic operations, depending on the model. Digital were also the calculating rods of John Napier (Scotland, 1617), which served for multiplication and division. In the mid-19th century, mechanical calculating machines experienced a boom with the arithmometer of Charles-Xavier Thomas (France, 1820). A special variant were the inexpensive sliding bar calculators created by Heinrich Kummer (Germany, 1847), which were intended to facilitate addition and subtraction. The peak of mechanical calculating machines was the world-famous Curta of Curt Herzstark (Austria, 1938), which was mass-produced in Liechtenstein from 1948.
Fig. 3: Pascaline. Eight-place machine for Marguerite Périer. Credit: Muséum Henri-Lecoq, Ville de Clermont-Ferrand, picture: Stéphane Vidal.
Herman Hollerith (USA) developed a punch card machine (see Fig. 4) for the first American census (1890). Digital punched card machines were in use worldwide until the 1980s. Charles Babbage (U.K.) used punched cards for his unfinished analytical engine (1834). He was inspired to do so by the French automatic looms (invented by Basile Bouchon, Jean-Baptiste Falcon, Jacques Vaucanson, and Joseph-Marie Jacquard).
Fig. 4: Replica of the Hollerith census machine by Roberto Guatelli. Hermann Hollerith (1860–1929) built this punched card machine (counting and sorting machine, tabulator, and pantograph card punch) for the American census in 1890. Credit: Computer History Museum, Mountain View, CA.
Fig. 5: The Atanasoff-Berry computer (ABC). The binary vacuum tube computer of John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Edward Berry (1942) from Ames (Iowa) was reconstructed in 1996. The ABC is regarded as the world's first digital electronic computer. Credit: Computer History Museum, Mountain View, CA/picture: Mark Richards).
Fig. 6: Electronic pocket calculator. The first programmable electronic pocket calculator, the Hewlett-Packard 65, from the year 1974. Credit: Geodätisches Institut der Leibniz-Universität Hannover.
Creation of selected IT companies
Looking at the digital age in a broader sense, variant B (abacus) seems to me to be the most convincing. In a narrower sense, variant G (boom of the Web) is the most likely.
Analog and digital calculating aids were used in parallel for centuries: analog logarithmic slide rules and digital mechanical calculating machines. And for a long time there was a competition between analog and digital electronic calculators.
What does predigital age mean?
Time and again, one reads about the predigital age. Most people probably mean a period that ended in the second half of the 20th century. For many people, digital and electronic are synonyms. If the digital age starts with finger-reckoning, there would be no predigital age....
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Herbert Bruderer is a retired lecturer in didactics of computer science at ETH Zurich. More recently, he has been an historian of technology. email@example.com, herbert.bruderer@bluewin.
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