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Communications of the ACM

Table of Contents

Toward better documentation of programming languages: introduction

Documentation problems: ALGOL 60

In presenting the following notes I wish to make it clear that they express only my private views. Thus although these views naturally have been greatly influenced by the experience I have gained through my participation in the …



The documentation of COMIT reflects the conviction that adequate user manuals are as much a part of a successful problem-oriented language system as is the compiler itself. Without adequate manuals, a language could not be easily …


“The FORTRAN language is intended to be capable of expressing any problem of numerical computation. In particular, it deals easily with problems containing large sets of formulae and many variables, and it permits any variable …

Documentation of IPL-V

IPL-V (Information Processing Language-V) is a programming language for list processing and symbol manipulation. It is the fifth of a series of programming languages that has developed as part of a research effort in artificial …

Jovial and its documentation


Survey of programming languages and processors

Addressing an array Yi in k-dimensions by Fortran for analysis of variance

In analysis of variance and covariance of data in factorial designs, multidimensional arrays are the rule rather than the exception. The 1620 FORTRAN language is severely limited in its DIMENSION statements in that subscripting …

Selective instruction trap for the 7090

A variant method of file searching

Trapping an instruction which cannot normally be trapped can be worthwhile, particularly when an existing program is to be revised. However, under those circumstances one would desire to replace instructions on a one-for-one  …

Test matrix for inversion

The following is an account of current documentation on the NELIAC Language.

Algorithm 156: algebra of sets

Algorithm 154: combination in lexicographical order

Algorithm 157: Fourier series approximation

Algorithm 155: combination in any order

Algorithm 159: determinant

Certification of algorithm 79: difference expression coefficients

Algorithm 158 (algorithm 134, revised) exponention of series

Certification of algorithm 96: ancestor

Remark on algorithm 133: random

Note on the proof of the non-existence of a phrase structure grammar for ALGOL 60

Certifications of algorithms 117 and 118 magic square (odd and even orders)2

The proof of the non-existence of a phrase structure grammar for ALGOL 60 by Robert W. Floyd [Comm. ACM 5 (Sept. 1962)] depends on the assumption that a syntactically correct ALGOL program must be a block. The concept of “program” …

Characteristic values and vectors of defective matrices

A computational extension of the variate difference method

Presented here is a computational extension of the variate difference method as developed by G. Tintner [1].

An interative factorization techniques for polynomials

An iterative technique is displayed whereby factors of arbitrary degree can be found for polynomials in one variable. Convergence is shown to occur always if a certain Jacobian does not vanish and if the initial approximation …

Significance arithmetic on a digital computer

The 7090 at NYU has been modified to include a “Significance Mode” of operation which is intended to facilitate the identification of significant bits in the results of floating-point arithmetic operations. The manner in which …

Everyman's information retrieval system

The information retrieval problem whose solution is presented here was posed by a technical library with limited budget and personnel. The solution, however, is quite general and is applicable to many different types of retrieval …

RECOL—a retrieval command language

An interrogation scheme is described for the retrieval and manipulation of data file records. The language of the interrogation scheme allows for selecting file records with the use of logical condition statements, defining record …