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Communications of the ACM

ACM TechNews

Google, Microsoft Have Your Mail, Mostly

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A letter carrier delivering snail mail.

The University of California, San Diego's Alex Liu said, While self-hosted domains switched to providers across all categories, more than a quarter of them changed their mail provider to Google and Microsoft,


University of California, San Diego (UCSD) computer scientists studying the email service providers used by hundreds of thousands of Internet domains between 2017 and 2021 found high levels of concentration.

As of June, Google provided email services to 28.5% of popular Internet domains, while Microsoft provided email services to 10.8% of popular Internet domains, according to the UCSD researchers.

This escalates the impact of service failures and data breaches, while exposing companies and users outside the U.S. to potential subpoenas from U.S. government agencies.

Said UCSD's Stefan Savage, "Our research team empirically showed the extent to which email has been outsourced and concentrated to a small number of providers and service providers."

From UC San Diego News Center
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